How to Control Home Appliances from PC using Arduino

In this blog post, I will explain the process of how to control home appliances from PC using Arduino board. Whether you’re a beginner looking to learn the basics of Arduino or an enthusiast seeking a fun DIY project, this blog post will provide you with the knowledge and tools you need to get started. Let’s dive into the exciting world of Arduino-powered controlling home appliances using PC.

Home automation has gained immense popularity in recent years due to its convenience and energy-saving benefits. Being able to control lights, fans, and other appliances from the comfort of your PC is not only convenient but also can contribute to a more efficient use of energy. This guide will help you understand how to set up a system that allows you to control home appliances using an Arduino and serial communication.

Additionally, by mastering this skill, you’ll have the ability to create custom lighting solutions tailored to your needs. Whether you want to enhance your home’s ambiance, add flair to your workspace, or experiment with interactive art installations, knowing how to control home appliances with your Windows PC opens up a world of creative possibilities.

Furthermore, this skill has practical applications beyond just lighting. It can be a foundation for more complex projects involving sensors, actuators, and IoT (Internet of Things) applications. You’ll be equipped to build your own automation systems and remotely control various devices, all from your Windows PC. So, whether you’re a hobbyist, a tinkerer, or someone curious about the intersection of technology and creativity.”

Check out this step by step video guide on how to control home appliances from PC using Arduino Uno.

Understanding the Basics

Before we dive into the nitty-gritty of controlling home appliances with Arduino, let’s grasp the foundational concepts involved in this project.

Arduino: Arduino is an open-source hardware and software platform that facilitates the creation of interactive and programmable electronic systems. It features a microcontroller that can be programmed to execute various tasks based on inputs and commands.

Serial Communication: Serial communication is a method for transferring data between two devices in a sequential manner, one bit at a time. It’s a common way for microcontrollers like Arduino to communicate with computers, sensors, and other hardware.

Home Automation: Home automation refers to the ability to control and automate household appliances and systems remotely or through programmed schedules. With Arduino, you can create your own custom home automation solutions.

To build this IoT project controlling home appliances from PC we need some hardware and software, so let’s see what all we needed.

Required Hardware Components

    • Arduino Board – You will need an Arduino board for this project. We recommend using the Arduino Uno for its simplicity and popularity.
    • Jumper Wire – Get 5 set of male-to-female jumper wires to connect components on the breadboard and Arduino Board.
    • USB Cable – A standard USB A to B cable for connecting the Arduino to your Windows PC
    • 4 Channel Relay – Relay act like a switch so with the help of Relay you will be able to control your home appliances 
    • 3 Bulb – We are using 3 bulbs pink, blue and green you can have as per your choice.

Required Software

    • Arduino IDE – Download and install the Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) from the official Arduino website. Link
    • IoT Control Tower App (Free and open source) – App is required to trigger the command from Windows PC to Arduino Board.

Arduino Connection

Now it’s time to see how you need to do connection between Arduino board and your components so that you can control the Home Appliances from PC. To explain anything I believe picture format is the best thing to understand and keep remember, so here is the schematic which you can follow and do the wiring.

How to Control Home Appliances from PC using Arduino

At this point I am hoping you have connected components with above given PINs to your Arduino board, now it’s time to check out the Arduino sketch for controlling LED using Windows PC.

Arduino Sketch

I am using the below code to control the home appliances from PC, you can modify this as per your need or you can use the same.

String inputString;
void setup() {
  // put your setup code here, to run once: 5-0
  for(int pin =0; pin< 14; pin++){
    pinMode(pin, OUTPUT);
    digitalWrite(pin, HIGH);
void loop() {
 inputString = Serial.readString();
  if(inputString != “”){
  int delimiterPos = inputString.indexOf(‘-‘);
    if (delimiterPos != -1) {
    String pinString = inputString.substring(0, delimiterPos);  
    String stateString = inputString.substring(delimiterPos + 1);  
    int pinNumber = pinString.toInt();
    int command = stateString.toInt(); //0 = Off or 1 = ON
    if (command == 1) {
      digitalWrite(pinNumber, LOW);
    } else if (command == 0) {
      digitalWrite(pinNumber, HIGH);


Upload Code to Arduino Board

To upload the program to Arduino board first you need to verify the connection between Arduino and PC. This connection is essential for uploading your code to the Arduino and communicating with it. Follow these steps carefully:

Step 1: Plug in Your Arduino:

    • Begin by plugging your Arduino board into your Windows PC using the USB cable provided in your kit. Insert one end of the USB cable into the Arduino’s USB port and the other end into an available USB port on your computer.

Step 2: Windows Device Recognition:

    • As soon as you connect the Arduino to your PC, Windows may recognize the device and attempt to install the necessary drivers. It may take a moment for this process to complete. You may see notifications or messages in the system tray during this time.

Step 3: Open the Arduino IDE:

    • Launch the Arduino IDE on your Windows PC. If you haven’t installed it yet, please refer to the previous section on setting up your Arduino for instructions.

Step 4: Select the Arduino Board:

    • In the Arduino IDE, go to the “Tools” menu. Under the “Board” submenu, select the appropriate Arduino board you’re using (e.g., “Arduino Uno”).

Step 5: Select the COM Port:

    • Still in the “Tools” menu, navigate to the “Port” submenu. You should see a list of available COM ports. Your Arduino should be listed as one of the COM ports.
    • Select the COM port that corresponds to your Arduino. If you’re unsure which one it is, you can check in the Windows Device Manager. It should be labeled as something like “Arduino Uno (COMx)” where “x” is a number.

Step 6: Verify the Connection:

    • To verify that your Arduino is successfully connected, you can upload a simple test sketch. For example, open the “Blink” example from the Arduino IDE’s “File” menu, and click the “Upload” button (the right-pointing arrow icon).
    • If the upload process completes without errors, it indicates that your Arduino is communicating with your PC correctly.

Step 7: Upload the above code:

    • Click on (->) button on toolbar to upload the sketch to your board, once uploaded you will see the message “Program Uploaded”. Congratulations! You’ve successfully installed the program to your Arduino board.

Controlling Home Appliances From PC

The idea behind the controlling the home appliances from Windows PC is serial communication, Serial communication is a fundamental concept in electronics and programming, and it plays a key role in controlling the LED from a Windows PC using an Arduino.

The Basics of Serial Communication: Serial communication is a method used to transfer data between two devices or systems one bit at a time, over a single wire or a pair of wires. It’s a common way to establish a data link between microcontrollers like Arduino and computers or other devices. In the case of Arduino and a Windows PC, this communication happens over a USB cable.

Serial Communication in Arduino:

    • In Arduino, serial communication is implemented using the Serial library. The Arduino board has a built-in hardware UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) that allows it to send and receive serial data.
    • The Serial library provides functions for sending and receiving data using the UART. The most commonly used functions are Serial.begin(), Serial.print(), and Serial.read().
    • Serial.begin(baudRate) initializes the serial communication at a specific baud rate, which determines the speed of data transmission. Both the Arduino and the PC must use the same baud rate for successful communication.
    • Serial.print() is used to send data from the Arduino to the PC, and Serial.read() is used to read data sent from the PC to the Arduino.

How Serial Communication Controls home Appliances:

    • Arduino Code: You write an Arduino sketch (program) that listens for incoming serial data from the PC. You define specific commands that the Arduino should recognize, such as “1” to turn the Bulb on and “0” to turn it off.
    • Arduino Response: When the Arduino receives a command via serial communication, it interprets the command and takes the corresponding action. For example, upon receiving “1,” it’s digitalWrite as Low for the Relay and it turns on the Bulb, and upon receiving “0,” vice-versa.

Troubleshooting and Tips

    • Arduino Not Recognized by Windows:
        • Issue: The Arduino board is not recognized by Windows, and the COM port is not visible.
        • Troubleshooting:
            • Ensure that the USB cable is securely connected to both the Arduino board and the PC.
            • Try using a different USB cable or USB port on your PC.
            • Install or update the Arduino drivers (if not automatically done by Windows).
    • Incorrect COM Port Selection:
        • Issue: Selecting the wrong COM port in the Arduino IDE.
        • Troubleshooting:
            • Double-check the COM port selected in the Arduino IDE under the “Tools” menu. It should match the COM port assigned to the Arduino by Windows.
            • If unsure, disconnect and reconnect the Arduino, and check the COM port list again.

Read also: How to Control LED From Windows PC Using Arduino – Arduino How To Guide


Controlling home appliances from your PC using Arduino and Serial communication is a rewarding DIY project that opens the door to endless possibilities for home automation. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you’ve learned the fundamental concepts and practical steps to get started.

As you gain experience, don’t hesitate to explore advanced features and integrations to create a truly smart and efficient home automation system tailored to your needs. With the power of Arduino and your creativity, you can transform your home into a smarter, more convenient, and energy-efficient space.

I hope you enjoyed this post on How to Control Home Appliances from PC using Arduino, Happy tinkering, and may your projects shine as bright as your imagination!

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